Anastasia Vladimirovna Zernina
Зернина Анастасия Владимировна
'Singing Tradition of the Doukhobors in Rostov province: Denominational and Regional Aspects', is the translated title of a fresh doctoral thesis by Anastasia V. Zernina, 2017.
She did her field work and research in 2012-2016 among Doukhobor and Molokan villages in Tselinsky district, Rostov province, Russian Federation.
Her work focuses on Doukhobor oral traditions of burial, marriage, beliefs (ideology), calendar events, and singing (religious, worldly), with many references to neighboring Molokane. The phrase "Doukhobors and Molokans" appears about 26 times in the text.
The Russian title: 'Певческая Традиция Духоборов Ростовской Области: Конфессиональный и Региональный аспекты' is online in PDF, and abstract in a separate PDF.
Table 1 (page 74), 'Singing repertoire of Rostov Dukhobors', summarizes her categorization of all songs, shown below translated.
|Click on chart to ENLARGE|
Half of the thesis pages (129 to 251) are Bibliography (231 references, 15 Canadian) and Appendixes. Missing in Bibliography are:
- O'Brien-Rothe, Linda. The Origin of [Dukh-i-zhiznik] Singing: The Molokan Heritage Collection: Spiritual Songs of [Dukh-i-zhizniki] in California and Their Origins in Russian Folk Music, Volume 4, Highgate Road Social Science Research Station, 1989.
- Mazo, Margarita. "Singing as Experience Among Russian American Molokans [and Dukh-i-zhizniki]." Chapter 4 of Music in American religious experience, ed. Vilas, P., E.L. Blumhofer, M.M. Chow. 2006, pages 84-119. — Dr. Mazo is friend and colleague of Nikitina whose 12 papers are cited (pages 144-146, numbers 109-120).
Dr. O'Brien-Rothe's analysis is similar to Zernina's in that both report the origin of Spiritual Christian religious song melodies are evolved adaptations of Orthodox church chants and old Russian folk music. Solemn drawn-out singing of religious hymns. like Oche nash, was developed to comply with the Russian law against "infecting" heterodox faiths, to sound non-sensible to an Orthodox who might hear the very slow singing. Doukhobors and Molokane only sing spiritual verses during Sunday service, but Pryguny and Dukh-i-zhizniki added melodies from faster folk song genres, especially for ecstatic spiritual jumping. Zealous Dukh-i-zhizniki in the U.S.A. and Australia scorn singing Russian folk song lyrics for entertainment, though they adapted folk song melodies to their own spiritual words.
A long 24-page chart (pages 164-187) lists 380 songs logged for her study — 157 (41%) religious, and 223 (59%) worldly folk songs. The chart has columns for Song number, Title (first words), Variants, Source (religious) or Author (folk songs), Recording location, and Notes. Below is a summary count of each category in this chart.
|Religious chants (157)
||Folk songs (223) |
2 stishki are borrowed from Molokane (page 173, numbers 81 and 91, Dukh-i-zhzinik Sionskii pesennik 64 and 129)
32 examples (including 2 variants) of musically notated songs with lyrics are shown (pages 189 to 244). Maybe a talented reader will record this sheet music for those of us who cannot read music to help create the first notated songbook with audio.
At the end (pages 245+), 91 informants interviewed from 1930 through 2012 are listed alphabetically by 8 villages (82 count) and 1 city (9 count), with the year and location of birth shown for 85 people, not the year interviewed. One man, Vasilii P. Lisichkin, was born among Molokane.
Though many high quality maps of Russia exist online, Zernina reports that she cannot use them because they are not "officially published", per rules for theses in Russia. She apologizes for the inaccurate, approximate Soviet era map on page 163, which was the only map she could use. Here's a list of better maps:
- Kalmakoff, Jonathan. Rostov Doukhobor and Molokan Villages, 1921-Present, Google Maps.
- Kalmakoff, Jonathan. Doukhobor and Molokan Settlements in Rostov Province, Russia, 1921-present, Doukhobor Genealogy Website.
- Conovaloff, Andrei. Spiritual Christians Repariated from Kars oblast, 1926. Molokane.org
- Doukhobor villages near Tselina, Wikimapia. Click on village for data.
- Doukhobor Villages near Tselina, Yandex.ru Russian map.
- Sal'sk NL 37-6, Series N501, U.S. Army Map Service, 1954.
- Kalmakoff, Jonathan. Kolkhoz Imeni Lenina, The Doukhobor Gazetteer.
- Kalmakoff, Jonathan. Tselina, The Doukhobor Gazetteer.
- Kolesnikova, Maria. 'Spirit Wrestlers of Southern Russia,' Doukhobor Genealogy Website.
- Kalmakoff, Jonathan. Index of Fallen Doukhobor Soldiers in the Soviet Red Army, World War II, Doukhobor Genealogy Website, 2010.
- Kalmakoff, Jonathan. Tambovka: In 1921-1923, Doukhobors established the village of Tambovka in the Tselina district of Rostov province, Russia. It was named after the village in Georgia from whence they came. 14 photos, Flickr, 2013.
- Pashtenko, V.O. and T.V. Nagorna. Tolstoy and the Doukhobors: Main Stages of Relations in the Late 19th and Early 20th Century, Journal of Ukrainian History, v.3, n.468, 2006. Doukhobor Genealogy Website.
- Conovaloff, Andrei. 501 Spiritual Christians Persecuted in 1940s. Molokane.org